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Brain Dev. 2014 Oct;36(9):778-85. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2013.11.004. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

A clinical study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preschool children--prevalence and differential diagnoses.

Author information

1
Center for Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address: nomura@cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp.
2
Center for Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.
3
Kanie Health Center, Aichi, Japan.
4
Graduate School of Education, Naruto University of Education, Naruto, Japan.
5
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We aimed to examine (1) the prevalence and characteristics of ADHD in preschool children, and (2) differential diagnoses among children who display symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in early childhood.

METHODS:

The participants were children living in Kanie-cho, in Japan's Aichi Prefecture, who underwent their age 5 exams at the municipal health center between April 2009 and March 2011. We first extracted children who were observed to be inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive during their age 5 exams and considered as possibly having ADHD. We conducted follow-ups with these children using post-examination consultations, visits to preschools, and group rehabilitation. The results of the age 5 exams were combined with behavior observations and interview content obtained during subsequent follow-ups. A child psychiatrist and several clinical psychologists discussed these cases and made a diagnosis in accordance with the DSM-IV-TR.

RESULTS:

91 (15.6%) of the 583 children selected were considered as possibly having ADHD; we were able to conduct follow-ups with 83 of the 91 children. Follow-up results showed that 34 children (5.8% of all participants) remained eligible for a diagnosis of ADHD. Diagnoses for the remaining children included: pervasive developmental disorders (six children, or 6.6% of suspected ADHD children), intellectual comprehension problems (four children, or 4.4%), anxiety disorders (seven children, or 7.7%), problems related to abuse or neglect (four children, or 4.4%), a suspended diagnosis for one child (1.1%), and unclear diagnoses for 29 children (31.9%).

CONCLUSIONS:

ADHD tendencies in preschool children vary with changing situations and development, and the present study provides prevalence estimates that should prove useful in establishing a diagnostic baseline.

KEYWORDS:

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); Differential diagnoses; Preschool children; Prevalence

PMID:
24295540
DOI:
10.1016/j.braindev.2013.11.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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