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Anaerobe. 2014 Oct;29:118-27. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2013.10.009. Epub 2013 Nov 27.

In vitro evaluation of the safety and probiotic properties of Lactobacilli isolated from chicken and calves.

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Institute of Animal Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Soltesovej 4/6, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic.
Institute of Animal Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Soltesovej 4/6, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic. Electronic address:


A total of 73 chicken and calves isolates were diagnosed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (Maldi-Tof MS). After a preliminary subtractive screening based on the high acid tolerance at pH 2.5 and bile resistance at 0.3% oxgall, twenty isolates belonging to the species Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus agilis, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus murinus and Lactobacillus amylovorus were in vitro screened for the safety assessment and probiotic properties, including antibiotics susceptibility patterns, biochemical activity and potential for competitive exclusion of biofilm producing pathogens determined by crystal violet and/or quantitative Fluorescent in situ Hybridisation (FISH) assays utilizing 5'Cy 3 labelled probe Enter1432 for enteric group. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed according to the ISO norm 10932. The sixteen strains were susceptible to certain antimicrobial agents, except for two chicken (L. salivarius 12K, L. agilis 13K) and two calves (L. reuteri L10/1, L. murinus L9) isolates with the presence non wild-type ECOFFs (epidemiological cut-off) for gentamicin (≥256 μg ml(-1)), tetracycline (≥128 μg ml(-1)), kanamycin (≥256 μg ml(-1)) and streptomycin (≥96 μg ml(-1)). The two referenced chicken isolates gave positive aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and tet(L) PCR results. The wild-type ECOFFs isolates were subjected to the apiZYM analysis for enzyme profile evaluation and amino acid decarboxylase activities determined by qualitative plate method and multiplex PCR for the detection of four genes involved in the production of histamine (histidine decarboxylase, hdc), tyramine (tyrosine decarboxylase, tyrdc) and putrescine (via eithers ornithine decarboxylase, odc, or agmatine deiminase, agdi). From examined strains only two chicken isolates (L. reuteri 14K; L. salivarius 15K) had no harmful β-glucuronidase, β-glucosidase activities connected with detrimental effects in the gastrointestinal tract and together no amino acid decarboxylase activities and no genes associated with biogenic amines production though only chicken L. salivarius 15K whole cells and acid supernatants shown strong suppressive potential against biofilm-forming Klebsiella and Escherichia coli. Our results highlight that above-mentioned isolate L. salivarius 15K fulfils the principle requirements of a qualified probiotic and may be seen as a reliable candidate for further validation studies in chicken.


Antibiotic resistance; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella; Lactobacilli; Maldi-Tof MS; β-Glucuronidase

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