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Comput Biol Med. 2013 Dec;43(12):2136-55. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2013.10.007. Epub 2013 Oct 14.

Computer-aided diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy: a review.

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Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599489 Singapore. Electronic address:


Diabetes mellitus may cause alterations in the retinal microvasculature leading to diabetic retinopathy. Unchecked, advanced diabetic retinopathy may lead to blindness. It can be tedious and time consuming to decipher subtle morphological changes in optic disk, microaneurysms, hemorrhage, blood vessels, macula, and exudates through manual inspection of fundus images. A computer aided diagnosis system can significantly reduce the burden on the ophthalmologists and may alleviate the inter and intra observer variability. This review discusses the available methods of various retinal feature extractions and automated analysis.


Computer-aided diagnosis; Fundus imaging; Image processing; Pattern classification; Retina; Retinopathy

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