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Cell Calcium. 2014 Jan;55(1):24-37. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2013.10.006. Epub 2013 Nov 15.

Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Author information

1
The Ronald O. Perelman and Claudia Cohen Center for Reproductive Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.
2
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Education City - Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.
3
The Ronald O. Perelman and Claudia Cohen Center for Reproductive Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: gdpalerm@med.cornell.edu.

Abstract

Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described.

KEYWORDS:

Assisted oocyte activation; Calcium influx; Failed fertilization; ICSI; Oocyte activation; PLCζ; Sperm cytosolic factor

PMID:
24290744
PMCID:
PMC4046257
DOI:
10.1016/j.ceca.2013.10.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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