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Phys Rev Lett. 2013 Nov 15;111(20):205302. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

XYZ quantum Heisenberg models with p-orbital bosons.

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Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Se-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden and NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Se-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.


We demonstrate how the spin-1/2 XYZ quantum Heisenberg model can be realized with bosonic atoms loaded in the p band of an optical lattice in the Mott regime. The combination of Bose statistics and the symmetry of the p-orbital wave functions leads to a nonintegrable Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic couplings. Moreover, the sign and relative strength of the couplings characterizing the model are shown to be experimentally tunable. We display the rich phase diagram in the one-dimensional case and discuss finite size effects relevant for trapped systems. Finally, experimental issues related to preparation, manipulation, detection, and imperfections are considered.

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