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J Med Microbiol. 2014 Feb;63(Pt 2):322-4. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.066399-0. Epub 2013 Nov 28.

Spread of epidemic Clostridium difficile NAP1/027 in Latin America: case reports in Panama.

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Laboratorio de Investigación en Bacteriología Anaerobia (LIBA), Facultad de Microbiología and Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060, Montes de Oca, San José, Costa Rica.


The rate and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been linked to the emergence and spread of the hypervirulent toxigenic strain NAP1/027. This strain has been responsible for large outbreaks in healthcare facilities in North America and Europe and most recently in Latin America. This is the first report of the NAP1 strain in Panama. It suggests that the spread of C. difficile NAP1 throughout Latin America could be a possibility as evidenced in the following case reports. Five isolates typed as NAP1 had tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin gene cdtB and tcdC deletion. All isolates were resistant to clindamycin, fluoroquinolones and rifampicin. Under this scenario, surveillance programmes for CDI should be implemented in public health facilities in Latin America and diagnosis of CDI should be considered, especially in patients with predisposing factors.

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