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Trends Biochem Sci. 2014 Jan;39(1):17-24. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2013.10.004. Epub 2013 Nov 26.

The unique functions of tissue-specific proteasomes.

Author information

1
Division of Immunology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz, Germany.
2
Division of Immunology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz, Germany; Biotechnology Institute Thurgau at the University of Konstanz, CH-8280 Kreuzlingen, Switzerland. Electronic address: Marcus.Groettrup@uni-konstanz.de.

Abstract

The 26S proteasome is the main protease in eukaryotes. Proteolysis occurs within the cylindrical 20S proteasome that is constitutively expressed in most tissues. However, three tissue-specific versions of the 20S proteasome have been discovered to date. The immunoproteasome is optimized to process antigens and it directs the differentiation of T helper (Th) cells. The thymoproteasome is selectively expressed in cortical epithelial cells of the thymus where it plays an essential role in the positive selection of T lymphocytes. Finally, the spermatoproteasome is found in the testes where it is required during spermatogenesis. Here, we outline how tissue-specific proteasomes adapt to functional needs in their respective tissues and how their selective inhibition may be used to interfere with autoimmune diseases and cancer.

KEYWORDS:

antigen presentation; immunoproteasome; spermatoproteasome; thymoproteasome; ubiquitin

PMID:
24286712
DOI:
10.1016/j.tibs.2013.10.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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