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Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2014 Feb;47(1):135-46. doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2013.08.014. Epub 2013 Oct 23.

Paradoxic vocal fold movement disorder.

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Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Eye and Ear Institue, Suite 4000, 915 Olentangy River Road, Columbus, OH 43212, USA; JamesCare Voice and Swallowing Disorders Clinic, Stoneridge Medical Center, 4019 West Dublin-Granville Road, Dublin, OH 43017, USA. Electronic address:


Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement Disorder (PVFMD) is a cause of dyspnea that can mimic or occur alongside asthma or other pulmonary disease. Treatment with Laryngeal Control Therapy is very effective once the entity is properly diagnosed and contributing comorbidities are managed appropriately. In understanding the etiology of PVFMD, focus has broadened beyond psychiatric factors alone to include the spectrum of laryngeal irritants (laryngopharyngeal reflux, allergic and sinus disease, sicca, and possibly obstructive sleep apnea). The following is a discussion of the history, terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis, comorbid conditions, and treatment of this entity.


Paradoxical vocal cord dysfunction; Paradoxical vocal cord motion dysfunction; Paradoxical vocal cord movement disorder; Paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction; Paradoxical vocal fold motion dysfunction; Paradoxical vocal fold movement disorder; Respiratory retraining therapy; Vocal cord dysfunction

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