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J Dermatol Sci. 2014 Mar;73(3):232-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2013.10.010. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

Anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of capric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: a comparative study with lauric acid.

Author information

1
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.
2
Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
3
Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
4
Department of Dermatology, Venereology, Allergology and Immunology, Dessau Medical Center, Dessau, Germany.
5
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address: pjtsai@ntnu.edu.tw.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a commensal bacterium which is possibly involved in acne inflammation. The saturated fatty acid, lauric acid (C12:0) has been shown to possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against P. acnes. Little is known concerning the potential effects of its decanoic counterpart, capric acid (C10:0).

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of capric acid against P. acnes and to investigate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action.

METHODS:

The antimicrobial activity of fatty acids was detected using the broth dilution method. An evaluation of P. acnes-induced ear edema in mice was conducted to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect. To elucidate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect, human SZ95 sebocytes and monocytic THP-1 cells were treated with P. acnes alone or in the presence of a fatty acid. The mRNA levels and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by qRT-PCR and enzyme immunoassay, respectively. NF-κB activation and MAPK expression were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot, respectively.

RESULTS:

Lauric acid had stronger antimicrobial activity against P. acnes than capric acid in vitro and in vivo. However, both fatty acids attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling in mice along with microabscess and significantly reduced interleukin (IL)-6 and CXCL8 (also known as IL-8) production in P. acnes-stimulated SZ95 sebocytes. P. acnes-induced mRNA levels and secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α in THP-1 cells were suppressed by both fatty acids, which inhibited NF-κB activation and the phosphorylation of MAP kinases.

CONCLUSION:

Our data demonstrate that both capric acid and lauric acid exert bactericidal and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes. The anti-inflammatory effect may partially occur through the inhibition of NF-κB activation and the phosphorylation of MAP kinases.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-inflammation; Antibacterial; Capric acid; Lauric acid; Propionibacterium acnes

PMID:
24284257
DOI:
10.1016/j.jdermsci.2013.10.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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