Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Reproduction. 2014 Mar 2;147(4):443-53. doi: 10.1530/REP-13-0461. Print 2014.

Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols.

Author information

  • 1University Department of Growth and Reproduction, Section 5064, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine-disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is particularly vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals therefore is of concern for pregnant women. We investigated current exposure to several commonly used phthalates, parabens and phenols in healthy, pregnant Danish women. A total of 200 spot urine samples were collected between 8 and 30 weeks of gestation and analysed for metabolites of ten phenols, seven parabens and 16 phthalate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry representing 26 non-persistent compounds. The majority of analytes were present in the urine sample collected from most women who participated. Thus, in 174 of the 200 women, metabolites of more than 13 (>50%) of 26 compounds were detected simultaneously. The number of compounds detected per woman (either as the parent compound or its metabolite(s)) ranged from 7 to 21 with a median of 16. The majority of compounds correlated positively with each other within and between chemical groups, suggesting combined exposure sources. Estimated daily intakes (DIs) of phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) were below their individual tolerable DI (TDI) and with hazard quotients below 1. In conclusion, we found detectable levels of phthalate metabolites, parabens and phenols in almost all pregnant women, suggesting combined multiple exposures. Although the estimated DI of phthalates and BPA for an individual was below TDI, our results still raise concern, as current toxicological risk assessments in humans do not take into account simultaneous exposure. The true cumulative risk for the foetus may therefore be underestimated.

PMID:
24282315
DOI:
10.1530/REP-13-0461
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center