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Depress Anxiety. 2014 Apr;31(4):344-51. doi: 10.1002/da.22206. Epub 2013 Nov 27.

Anxious forms of depression.

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Health Service & Population Research, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, London, UK.


Previous research has described distinctive features for anxious and nonanxious forms of major depression. The concept of "mixed anxiety depression disorder" (MADD) refers to a milder degree of the anxious form of depression, since the depressive symptoms fall short of the number required for a diagnosis of major depression. It is argued that this can be thought of as a subclinical form of anxious depression, rather than a separate disorder in its own right. In view of its substantial prevalence in general medical settings, its associated disability and its public health importance, it deserves to be recognized, and seen as being continuous with the more severe forms of anxious depression. It will therefore be included in the Field Trials of the version of the ICD-11 (where ICD is the International Classification of Disease) intended for primary care. It is argued that current anxiety, depression (without anxiety), and anxious depression would cover most of the psychologically distressed patients seen in general medical settings, using a pseudodimensional system.


anxiety/anxiety disorders; depression; measurement/psychometrics; mood disorders; primary care

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