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MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 Nov 29;62(47):945-52.

Differences between HIV-Infected men and women in antiretroviral therapy outcomes - six African countries, 2004-2012.


Evaluation of differences between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men and women in antiretroviral therapy (ART) enrollment characteristics and outcomes might identify opportunities to improve ART program patient outcomes and prevention impact. During September 2008-February 2012, retrospective cohort studies to estimate attrition of enrollees (i.e., from death, stopping ART, or loss to follow-up) at 6-month intervals after ART initiation were completed among samples of adult men and women (defined as aged ≥15 years or aged ≥18 years) who initiated ART during 2004-2010 in six African countries: Côte d'Ivoire in western Africa; Swaziland, Mozambique, and Zambia in southern Africa; and Uganda and Tanzania in eastern Africa. Records for 13,175 ART enrollees were analyzed; sample sizes among the six countries ranged from 1,457 to 3,682. In each country, women comprised 61%-67% of ART enrollees. Median CD4 count range was 119-141 cells/µL for men and 137-161 cells/µL for women. Compared with women, a greater percentage of men initiated ART who had World Health Organization (WHO) HIV stage IV disease. In cohorts from western Africa and southern Africa, the risk for attrition was 15%-26% lower among women compared with men in multivariable analysis. However, in eastern Africa, differences between men and women in risk for attrition were not statistically significant. Research to identify country-specific causes for increased attrition and delayed initiation of care among men could identify strategies to improve ART program outcomes among men, which might contribute to prevention of new HIV infections in female partners.

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