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Epigenetics Chromatin. 2013 Sep 16;6(1):30. doi: 10.1186/1756-8935-6-30.

Mapping genome-wide transcription factor binding sites in frozen tissues.



Genome-wide maps of transcription factor binding sites in primary tissues can expand our understanding of genome function, transcriptional regulation, and genetic alterations that contribute to disease risk. However, almost all genome-wide studies of transcription factors have been in cell lines, and performing these experiments in tissues has been technically challenging and limited in throughput.


Here we outline a simple strategy for mapping transcription factor binding sites in frozen tissues that utilizes dry pulverization of samples and is scalable for high-throughput analyses. We show that the method leads to accurate and reproducible chromatin immunoprecipitation next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data, and is highly sensitive, identifying high-quality transcription factor binding sites from chromatin corresponding to only 5 mg of liver tissue.


The enhanced reproducibility, robustness, and sensitivity of the dry pulverization method, in addition to the ease of implementation and scalability, makes ChIP-seq in primary tissues a widely accessible assay.

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