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Am J Transplant. 2014 Jan;14(1):115-23. doi: 10.1111/ajt.12518. Epub 2013 Nov 26.

Efficacy and safety of vildagliptin in new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

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Clinical Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.


New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a serious complication after kidney transplantation, but therapeutic strategies remain underexplored. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors selectively foster insulin secretion without inducing hypoglycemia, which might be advantageous in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with NODAT. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II trial to assess safety and efficacy of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin. Intraindividual differences in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived 2-h plasma glucose (2HPG) from baseline to 3 months after treatment served as primary endpoint. Among secondary outcomes, we evaluated HbA1c, metabolic and safety parameters, as well as OGTTs at 1 month after drug discontinuation. Of 509 stable KTRs who were screened in our outpatient clinic, 63 (12.4%) had 2HPG ≥ 200 mg/dL, 33 of them were randomized and 32 completed the study. In the vildagliptin group 2HPG and HbA1c were profoundly reduced in comparison to placebo (vildagliptin: 2HPG = 182.7 mg/dL, HbA1c = 6.1%; placebo: 2HPG = 231.2 mg/dL, HbA1c = 6.5%; both p ≤ 0.05), and statistical significance was achieved for the primary endpoint (vildagliptin: 2HPG-difference -73.7 ± 51.3 mg/dL; placebo: -5.7 ± 41.4 mg/dL; p < 0.01). Adverse events were generally mild and occurred at similar rates in both groups. In conclusion, DPP-4 inhibition in KTRs with overt NODAT was safe and efficient, providing a novel treatment alternative for this specific form of diabetes.



DPP-4 inhibitor; kidney transplantation; new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT); posttransplant diabetes mellitus; transplant associated hyperglycemia

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