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J Youth Adolesc. 1988 Aug;17(4):307-16. doi: 10.1007/BF01537672.

Social support and self-esteem in adolescence.

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Department of Psychology, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.


This study assessed contingencies in the effect of social support from parents and friends on adolescent self-esteem. Questionnaires were administered to 76 Israeli adolescents regarding self-esteem, stressful life events, and perceived level of support from mother, father, and friends. Maternal support had a strong effect on self-esteem. Aid from friends was influential primarily when that of mothers was absent. Paternal support had little effect, once other support sources were controlled. Despite the negative influence of stress on self-esteem, support and stress had no interactive effects. These findings, consistent with attachment theory and social provision theories, were contrary to cross-pressure or separate world models of peer/parent influence.


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