Send to

Choose Destination
Ann Oncol. 2014 Mar;25(3):584-91. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdt420. Epub 2013 Nov 24.

Coffee consumption and risk of nonaggressive, aggressive and fatal prostate cancer--a dose-response meta-analysis.

Author information

Units of Nutritional Epidemiology.



Existing epidemiological evidence is controversial regarding the possible associations between coffee consumption and risk of prostate cancer (PCa) by aggressiveness of the disease.


We conducted a random-effects dose-response meta-analysis to assess the relationships between coffee consumption and nonaggressive, aggressive and fatal PCa risk. Studies were identified by a search of Medline and Embase databases to 15 July 2013. We carried out separate analyses by grade (Gleason score: low-grade, high-grade) and stage (TNM staging system: localized, advanced) of the tumors. Nonaggressive tumors were defined as low-grade or localized, while aggressive tumors were defined as high-grade or advanced.


Eight studies (three case-control and five cohort) were included in this meta-analysis. Gleason 7 tumors were classified as high-grade in one study, while in another study, Gleason 7(4 + 3) tumors were classified as high-grade and Gleason 7(3 + 4) as low-grade. In the remaining four studies, Gleason 7 tumors were excluded from the analyses or analyzed separately. The pooled relative risk (RR) for a consumption increment of 3 cups/day was 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.03] for low-grade PCa (n = 6), 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-0.99) for localized PCa (n = 6), 0.89 (95% CI 0.78-1.00) for high-grade PCa (n = 6), 0.95 (95% CI 0.85-1.06) for advanced PCa (n = 6) and 0.89 (95% CI 0.82-0.97) for fatal PCa (n = 4). No evidence of publication bias was observed. Heterogeneity was absent or marginal (I(2) range = 0-26%), with the only exception of the analysis on advanced PCa, where moderate heterogeneity was observed (I(2) = 60%). When restricting the analyses only to those studies that defined high-grade tumors as Gleason 8-10, the inverse association became slightly stronger [RR: 0.84 (95% CI 0.72-0.98); n = 4].


Results from this dose-response meta-analysis suggest that coffee consumption may be inversely associated with the risk of fatal PCa. No clear evidence of an association with PCa incidence was observed.


coffee; dose–response meta-analysis; epidemiology; prostate cancer

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center