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Autophagy. 2014 Jan;10(1):80-92. doi: 10.4161/auto.26743. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

The multifunctional autophagy pathway in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

Author information

1
Graduate Program in Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology; University of California, Riverside; Riverside, CA USA; Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience; University of California, Riverside; Riverside, CA USA.
2
Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience; University of California, Riverside; Riverside, CA USA.
3
Stowers Institute for Medical Research; Kansas City, MO USA.

Abstract

Autophagy is a catabolic pathway typically induced by nutrient starvation to recycle amino acids, but can also function in removing damaged organelles. In addition, this pathway plays a key role in eukaryotic development. To date, not much is known about the role of autophagy in apicomplexan parasites and more specifically in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Comparative genomic analysis has uncovered some, but not all, orthologs of autophagy-related (ATG) genes in the malaria parasite genome. Here, using a genome-wide in silico analysis, we confirmed that ATG genes whose products are required for vesicle expansion and completion are present, while genes involved in induction of autophagy and cargo packaging are mostly absent. We subsequently focused on the molecular and cellular function of P. falciparum ATG8 (PfATG8), an autophagosome membrane marker and key component of the autophagy pathway, throughout the parasite asexual and sexual erythrocytic stages. In this context, we showed that PfATG8 has a distinct and atypical role in parasite development. PfATG8 localized in the apicoplast and in vesicles throughout the cytosol during parasite development. Immunofluorescence assays of PfATG8 in apicoplast-minus parasites suggest that PfATG8 is involved in apicoplast biogenesis. Furthermore, treatment of parasite cultures with bafilomycin A 1 and chloroquine, both lysosomotropic agents that inhibit autophagosome and lysosome fusion, resulted in dramatic morphological changes of the apicoplast, and parasite death. Furthermore, deep proteomic analysis of components associated with PfATG8 indicated that it may possibly be involved in ribophagy and piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus. Collectively, our data revealed the importance and specificity of the autophagy pathway in the malaria parasite and offer potential novel therapeutic strategies.

KEYWORDS:

Plasmodium; apicoplast biogenesis; autophagy; gametocytogenesis; protein traffic

PMID:
24275162
PMCID:
PMC4028325
DOI:
10.4161/auto.26743
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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