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Lancet Oncol. 2013 Dec;14(13):e621-9. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70303-6.

Recommendations for breast cancer surveillance for female survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer given chest radiation: a report from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group.

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Department of Paediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital and Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:


Female survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult (CAYA) cancer who were given radiation to fields that include breast tissue (ie, chest radiation) have an increased risk of breast cancer. Clinical practice guidelines are essential to ensure that these individuals receive optimum care and to reduce the detrimental consequences of cancer treatment; however, surveillance recommendations vary among the existing long-term follow-up guidelines. We applied evidence-based methods to develop international, harmonised recommendations for breast cancer surveillance among female survivors of CAYA cancer who were given chest radiation before age 30 years. The recommendations were formulated by an international, multidisciplinary panel and are graded according to the strength of the underlying evidence.

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