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Electrophoresis. 2014 May;35(9):1346-52. doi: 10.1002/elps.201300410. Epub 2013 Dec 23.

Speciation analysis of lead in marine animals by using capillary electrophoresis couple online with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

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Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety of Ministry of Education, Fujian Provincial Key Lab of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, P. R. China.


We herein reported a environment-friendly microwave-assisted extraction used to extract trace lead compounds from marine animals and a ultrasensitive method for the analysis of Pb²⁺, trimethyl lead chloride (TML) and triethyl lead chloride (TEL) by using CE-ICP-MS. The extraction method is simple and has a high extracting efficiency. It can be used to completely extract both inorganic lead and organolead in marine animal samples without altering its species. The analytical method has a detection limit as low as 0.012-0.084 ng Pb/mL for Pb²⁺, TML, and TEL, and can be used to determine ultratrace Pb²⁺, TML, and TEL in marine animals directly without any preconcentration. With the help of above methods, we have successfully determined Pb²⁺, TML, and TEL in clam and oyster tissue within 20 min with a RSD (n = 6) < 5% and a recovery of 91-104%. Our results showed that Pb²⁺ was the main species of lead in clam and oyster, and organolead (TML) was only found in oyster. The proposed method provides a realistic approach for the accurate evaluation of lead pollution in seafood.


CE-ICP-MS; Lead; Marine animal; Organolead; Speciation analysis

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