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An Acad Bras Cienc. 2013;85(4):1545-56. doi: 10.1590/0001-37652013107912. Epub 2013 Nov 10.

Induction and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pro-embryogenic masses.

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Laboratório Central de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Lavras/UFLA, 37200-000LavrasMG, Brasil.
Departamento de Fitopatologia, Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica e Ultra-estrutural, Universidade Federal de Lavras/UFLA, 37200-000LavrasMG, Brasil.
Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Campus Jataí, 75801-615JataíGO, Brasil.


Oil palm is one of the most economically valuable oil seed plants, but the expansion of plantations has been limited by availability of seedlings, as the conventional propagation is through seeds, which have low germination rates. One possible solution for the large-scale production is the use of somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects auxins 2,4-D and picloram on the induction of pro-embryogenic masses in E.guineenesis hybrid leaf explants and characterize, regarding embryogenic characteristics, with cytochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Specifically, in vitro plantlets leaves fragments were inoculated in Y3 culture medium supplemented by 2.4-D or picloram at different concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 mg l⁻¹). After 90 days the presence/ absence of cell masses were evaluated. Both growth regulators efficiently induced cellular masses regardless of the concentrations applied. As the cell masses were not homogeneously formed, they were classified according to color and shape into four types: TYPE 1--elongated and translucent, TYPE 2--uneven and translucent, TYPE 3--globular and beige, TYPE 4--globular and white. Based on the anatomical and ultrastructural features, TYPE 2, 3 and 4 cell masses were considered to have the highest embryogenic potential and therefore may be most suited to large-scale vegetative propagation of oil palm.

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