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J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2014 Jul;18(3):235-9. doi: 10.1097/LGT.0b013e3182a42d33.

Hysterectomy for abnormal cervical smear when local excision is not possible.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.



To review the outcomes of those women who underwent hysterectomy because of an abnormal cervical smear where local excision was considered technically not possible.


A retrospective chart review was performed for all women who had hysterectomy at a university-affiliated hospital, carried out during the period between January 2000 and June 2012, because of cervical neoplasia.


Fifty-six women were identified. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of the women at the time of hysterectomy was 61.4 (8.2) years. Two women (3.6%) had cervical carcinoma, and adjuvant treatment was required in both cases. Being postmenopausal and older than 50 years and having a history of previous local excisional procedure were associated with a higher risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia found during hysterectomy (p > .005). During a mean (SD) follow-up of 42.3 (30.8) months after hysterectomy, 35.7% of women had persistent cytologic abnormality after hysterectomy, with 19.6% having subsequent histologically proven vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN). Women's age, route of hysterectomy, previous local excision, degree of cytologic abnormality before hysterectomy, presence of VAIN before hysterectomy, and final histology of the hysterectomy specimen could not predict subsequent VAIN after hysterectomy.


Hysterectomy seems to be an appropriate option in management, but further surgery or adjuvant therapy may be needed. Women should also be aware of the possibilities of persistent cytologic abnormalities including VAIN, but unfortunately, no predictive factor for its occurrence can be identified.

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