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Acta Psychol (Amst). 2014 Jan;145:10-20. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.10.009. Epub 2013 Nov 22.

Classical conditioning and pain: conditioned analgesia and hyperalgesia.

Author information

1
State University of New York at Binghamton, USA. Electronic address: gmiguez1@binghamton.edu.
2
State University of New York at Binghamton, USA; Universidad de Chile, Chile. Electronic address: mariolaborda@u.uchile.cl.
3
State University of New York at Binghamton, USA. Electronic address: rmiller@binghamton.edu.

Abstract

This article reviews situations in which stimuli produce an increase or a decrease in nociceptive responses through basic associative processes and provides an associative account of such changes. Specifically, the literature suggests that cues associated with stress can produce conditioned analgesia or conditioned hyperalgesia, depending on the properties of the conditioned stimulus (e.g., contextual cues and audiovisual cues vs. gustatory and olfactory cues, respectively) and the proprieties of the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., appetitive, aversive, or analgesic, respectively). When such cues are associated with reducers of exogenous pain (e.g., opiates), they typically increase sensitivity to pain. Overall, the evidence concerning conditioned stress-induced analgesia, conditioned hyperalagesia, conditioned tolerance to morphine, and conditioned reduction of morphine analgesia suggests that selective associations between stimuli underlie changes in pain sensitivity.

KEYWORDS:

2343 Learning & Memory; 2420 Learning & Motivation; 3360 Health Psychology & Medicine; Analgesia; Conditioning; Hyperalgesia; Morphine tolerance; Pain

PMID:
24269884
PMCID:
PMC3877420
DOI:
10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.10.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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