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J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151(1):652-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.027. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four Cymbopogon species from Benin.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Physic and Synthesis Organic Chemistry (LaCOPS), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Faculty of Sciences and Technics (FAST), BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin; Pharmacognosy Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, B1 7203 Av. E. Mounier 72, B-1200 Bruxelles, Belgium; Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Essential oils (LAPHE), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Faculty of health Sciences (FSS), Faculty of Sciences et Technics (FAST), 01 BP: 188 Cotonou, Benin.
2
Pharmacognosy Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, B1 7203 Av. E. Mounier 72, B-1200 Bruxelles, Belgium.
3
Laboratory of Applied Ecology (LEA), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Faculty of Agronomic Sciences (FSA), 03 BP: 1974 Cotonou, Benin.
4
Laboratory of Physic and Synthesis Organic Chemistry (LaCOPS), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Faculty of Sciences and Technics (FAST), BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin; Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Essential oils (LAPHE), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Faculty of health Sciences (FSS), Faculty of Sciences et Technics (FAST), 01 BP: 188 Cotonou, Benin.
5
Laboratory of Physic and Synthesis Organic Chemistry (LaCOPS), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Faculty of Sciences and Technics (FAST), BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin.
6
Université de Liège, Drug Research Center, Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Av. de l'Hôpital 1, B36, B-4000 Liège, Belgium.
7
Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Essential oils (LAPHE), University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC), Faculty of health Sciences (FSS), Faculty of Sciences et Technics (FAST), 01 BP: 188 Cotonou, Benin.
8
Pharmacognosy Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, B1 7203 Av. E. Mounier 72, B-1200 Bruxelles, Belgium. Electronic address: joelle.leclercq@uclouvain.be.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Cymbopogon species are largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases some of which related to parasitical diseases as fevers and headaches. As part of our research on antiparasitic essential oils from Beninese plants, we decided to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activities of essential oils of four Cymbopogon species used in traditional medicine as well as their cytotoxicity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The essential oils of four Cymbopogon species Cymbopogon citratus (I), Cymbopogon giganteus (II), Cymbopogon nardus (III) and Cymbopogon schoenantus (IV) from Benin obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC/MS and GC/FID and were tested in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Plasmodium falciparum respectively for antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activities. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and the human non cancer fibroblast cell line (WI38) through MTT assay to evaluate the selectivity.

RESULTS:

All tested oils showed a strong antitrypanosomal activity with a good selectivity. Sample II was the most active against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and could be considered as a good candidate. It was less active against Plasmodium falciparum. Samples II, III and IV had low or no cytotoxicity, but the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (I), was toxic against CHO cells and moderately toxic against WI38 cells and needs further toxicological studies. Sample I (29 compounds) was characterised by the presence as main constituents of geranial, neral, β-pinene and cis-geraniol; sample II (53 compounds) by trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, trans-carveol, trans-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-2,8-dienol, cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol, limonene, cis-carveol and cis-carvone; sample III (28 compounds) by β-citronellal, nerol, β-citronellol, elemol and limonene and sample IV (41 compounds) by piperitone, (+)-2-carene, limonene, elemol and β-eudesmol.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study shows that essential oils of Cymbopogon genus can be a good source of antitrypanosomal agents. This is the first report on the activity of these essential oils against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Plasmodium falciparum and analysis of their cytotoxicity.

KEYWORDS:

Antiplasmodial activity; Antitrypanosomal activity; Chemical composition; Cymbopogon species; Cytotoxicity; Essential oils

PMID:
24269775
DOI:
10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.027
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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