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Trends Cell Biol. 2014 Apr;24(4):221-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2013.10.006. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

Destination: inner nuclear membrane.

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Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA.
Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA; Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. Electronic address:


The inner nuclear membrane (INM) of eukaryotic cells is enriched in proteins that are required for nuclear structure, chromosome organization, DNA repair, and transcriptional control. Mislocalization of INM proteins is observed in a wide spectrum of human diseases; however, the mechanism by which INM proteins reach their final destination is poorly understood. In this review we discuss how investigating INM composition, dissecting targeting pathways of conserved INM proteins in multiple systems and analyzing the nuclear transport of viruses and signaling complexes have broadened our knowledge of INM transport to include both nuclear pore complex-dependent and -independent pathways. The study of these INM targeting pathways is important to understanding nuclear organization and in both normal and diseased cells.


LEM domain; NPC; SUN protein; inner nuclear membrane; nuclear transport

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