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Metabolism. 2014 Feb;63(2):194-8. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2013.10.007. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

No effect of caloric restriction on salivary cortisol levels in overweight men and women.

Author information

1
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808; The Charles Perkins Centre and School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
2
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808.
3
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808. Electronic address: leanne.redman@pbrc.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The effect of weight loss by diet or diet and exercise on salivary cortisol levels, a measure of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal activity, in overweight individuals is not known. The objective was to test the hypothesis that 24 weeks of moderate caloric restriction (CR) (25%) by diet or diet and aerobic exercise would alter morning and diurnal salivary cortisol levels.

DESIGN AND SETTING:

Randomized control trial in an institutional research center.

PARTICIPANTS:

Thirty-five overweight (BMI: 27.8±0.7 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy participants (16 M/19 F).

INTERVENTION:

Participants were randomized to either calorie restriction (CR: 25% reduction in energy intake, n=12), calorie restriction+exercise (CR+EX: 12.5% reduction in energy intake+12.5% increase in exercise energy expenditure, n=12) or control (healthy weight-maintenance diet, n=11) for 6 months.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Salivary cortisol measured at 8:00, 8:30, 11:00, 11:30, 12:30, 13:00, 16:00 and 16:30. Morning cortisol was defined as the mean cortisol concentration at 08:00 and 08:30. Diurnal cortisol was calculated as the mean of the 8 cortisol measures across the day.

RESULTS:

In the whole cohort, higher morning and diurnal cortisol levels were associated with impaired insulin sensitivity (morning: P=0.004, r(2)=0.24; diurnal: P=0.02, r(2)=0.15). Using mixed model analysis, there was no significant effect of group, time or sex on morning or diurnal cortisol levels.

CONCLUSION:

A 10% weight loss with a 25% CR diet alone or with exercise did not impact morning or diurnal salivary cortisol levels.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00099151.

KEYWORDS:

ACTH; AIRg; Acute insulin response to glucose; Adrenocorticotropic hormone; BMI; Body Mass Index; CALERIE; CR; CR+EX; Calorie restriction; Calorie restriction+exercise; Cortisol; EE; ELISA; Energy expenditure; Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay; HPA; Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal; IGF; Insulin sensitivity; Insulin-like growth factor; LCD; Low calorie diet; Obesity; PBRC; Pennington Biomedical Research Center; Si; T3; T4; TSH; The Comprehensive Assessment of Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy; Thyroid stimulating hormone; Thyroxine; Triiodothyronine; VLCD; Very low calorie diet.; Weight loss

PMID:
24268369
PMCID:
PMC3946997
DOI:
10.1016/j.metabol.2013.10.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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