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Can J Cardiol. 2013 Dec;29(12):1535-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2013.08.008.

Presentation, diagnosis, and medical management of heart failure in children: Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines.

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The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Stollery Children's Hospital, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:


Pediatric heart failure (HF) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. This article presents guidelines for the recognition, diagnosis, and early medical management of HF in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The guidelines are intended to assist practitioners in office-based or emergency room practice, who encounter children with undiagnosed heart disease and symptoms of possible HF, rather than those who have already received surgical palliation. The guidelines have been developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, and are accompanied by practical Recommendations for their application in the clinical setting, supplemented by online material. This work does not include Recommendations for advanced management involving ventricular assist devices, or other device therapies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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