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Clin Chest Med. 2013 Dec;34(4):825-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2013.09.003. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

Parenteral and inhaled prostanoid therapy in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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Pulmonary Hypertension Program, Cardiovascular Center, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Room 2392, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5853, USA.


Since continuous IV epoprostenol was approved in the U.S., parenteral prostanoid therapy has remained the gold standard for the treatment of patients with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Prostanoid agents can be administered as continuous intravenous infusions, as continuous subcutaneous infusions and by intermittent nebulization therapy. This article presents data from clinical trials of available prostanoid agents, and their varied routes of administration. The varied routes of administration allow for the incremental use of this class of agents in advanced PAH, and if PAH progresses. Prostanoids will remain a major component of PAH therapy for the foreseeable future.


Epoprostenol; Iloprost; Inhaled therapy; Intravenous therapy; Parenteral therapy; Prostacyclins; Prostanoids; Treprostinil

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