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Nutr Res. 2013 Dec;33(12):1003-11. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2013.09.003. Epub 2013 Oct 17.

Exercise attenuates the increase in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not high-density lipoprotein 2b cholesterol caused by high-oleic ground beef in women.

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Department of Animal Science, 2471 TAMU, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.


We hypothesized that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and exercise increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by independent mechanisms, so there would be additive effects between a single, intensive session of exercise and high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and blood risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Seventeen postmenopausal women completed a 2-way crossover design in which they consumed five 114-g ground beef patties per week for two 6-week periods separated by a 4-week washout (habitual diet) period. The ground beef patties contained 21% total fat with either 9.97 (low-MUFA) or 12.72 (high-MUFA) g total MUFA. Blood was taken at entry, at the end of each 6-week diet period, after the 4-week washout period, and 24 hours after aerobic exercise sessions (75% VO₂peak, 2.07 MJ). After the ground beef intervention, the high-MUFA ground beef increased plasma palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle density, HDL-C, and HDL2b-C (all P < .05), whereas the low-MUFA ground beef increased LDL density. After the washout (habitual diet) period, the single exercise session increased serum LDL cholesterol, HDL-C, and HDL2a and decreased TAG and oleic acid. After the low-MUFA ground beef diet, exercise increased LDL size and HDL density and decreased LDL density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but had no effect on HDL-C fractions. After the high-MUFA ground beef intervention, exercise decreased palmitioleic acid, oleic acid, HDL-C, and HDL2a-C, but not HDL2b-C. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of exercise and a high-MUFA diet were not additive; instead, exercise attenuated the effects of the high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and plasma MUFAs. The differential effects of high-MUFA ground beef and exercise on HDL2a-C and HDL2b-C indicate that diet and exercise affect HDL-C by different mechanisms.


AHA; American Heart Association; BMI; CETP; CVD; Cholesterol; Exercise; Fatty acids; HDL-C; LDL-C; Lipoproteins; Lp(a); MUFA; Oleic acid; RLP-C; SCD; SFA; TAG; TC; VLDL-C; Women; body mass index; cardiovascular disease; cholesterol ester transferase protein; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; lipoprotein a; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; monounsaturated fatty acids; remnant lipoprotein cholesterol; saturated fatty acids; stearoyl-CoA desaturase; total cholesterol; triacylglycerol; very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

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