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Allergy. 2013 Dec;68(12):1546-54. doi: 10.1111/all.12261. Epub 2013 Nov 23.

Identification of Maillard reaction products on peanut allergens that influence binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Structural Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Recent immunological data demonstrated that dendritic cells preferentially recognize advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified proteins, upregulate expression of the receptor for AGE (RAGE), and consequently bias the immune response toward allergy.

METHODS:

Peanut extract was characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) to elucidate the specific residues and specific AGE modifications found in raw and roasted peanuts and on rAra h 1 that was artificially glycated by incubation with glucose or xylose. The binding of the RAGE-V1C1 domain to peanut allergens was assessed by PAGE and Western analysis with anti-Ara h 1, 2, and 3 antibodies. IgE binding to rAra h 1 was also assessed using the same methods.

RESULTS:

AGE modifications were found on Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 in both raw and roasted peanut extract. No AGE modifications were found on Ara h 2. Mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis demonstrated that RAGE binds selectively to Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 derived from peanut extract, whereas the analysis failed to demonstrate Ara h 2 binding to RAGE. rAra h 1 with no AGE modifications did not bind RAGE; however, after AGE modification with xylose, rAra h 1 bound to RAGE.

CONCLUSIONS:

AGE modifications to Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 can be found in both raw and roasted peanuts. Receptor for AGE was demonstrated to selectively interact with AGE-modified rAra h 1. If sensitization to peanut allergens occurs in dendritic cells via RAGE interactions, these cells are likely interacting with modified Ara h 1 and Ara h 3, but not Ara h 2.

KEYWORDS:

advanced glycation end product; allergens; epitopes; peanuts; receptor for AGE

PMID:
24266677
PMCID:
PMC3915869
DOI:
10.1111/all.12261
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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