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Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Mar;58(5):728-35. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit766. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

High rates of congenital cytomegalovirus infection linked with maternal HIV infection among neonatal admissions at a large referral center in sub-Saharan Africa.

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University of Zambia and University College London Medical School Research and Training Programme.



 Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the major infectious cause of birth defects and hearing loss globally. There is a growing recognition of the potential clinical impact of congenital CMV infections in high-seroprevalence settings.


 A cross-sectional study of neonatal admissions at a large referral center in sub-Saharan Africa to determine the prevalence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic congenital CMV infection was performed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to screen DNA-extracted sera, urine, and saliva, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to screen serum samples for anti-CMV immunoglobulin M. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with increased odds of congenital CMV infection.


 Congenital CMV was detected in 3.8% (15/395) of neonates. Among these infants, 6 of 15 (40%) presented with jaundice, 1 of whom also had petechiae. Congenital CMV infection was detected in 9 of 79 (11.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.1%-20.3%) neonates born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers, and both maternal HIV (odds ratio [OR], 6.661 [95% CI, 2.126-20.876], P = .001) and jaundice (OR, 5.701 [95% CI, 1.776-18.306], P = .003) were independently linked with significantly increased odds of congenital CMV infection.


 Congenital and early infant CMV infections may have important consequences for child health in sub-Saharan Africa and other high HIV and CMV seroprevalence populations globally.


Africa; CMV; HIV; congenital; neonate

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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