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Blood. 2014 Jan 9;123(2):228-38. doi: 10.1182/blood-2013-05-506568. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

Cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors synergize in mice with haploinsufficiency for Tp53, and two human del(5q) genes, Egr1 and Apc.

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Department of Medicine.


Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) are a late complication of the successful use of cytotoxic therapy for patients with cancer. A heterozygous deletions of the long arm of chromosome 5 [del(5q)], observed in 40% of patients, is associated with prior exposure to alkylating agents, and a high frequency of TP53 loss or mutation. In previous studies, we demonstrated that haploinsufficiency of 2 del(5q) genes, Egr1, and Apc, individually play a role in the pathogenesis of hematologic disease in mice. We now show that loss of one copy of Egr1 or Tp53 in an Apc haploinsufficient background (Apc (del/+)) accelerated the development of a macrocytic anemia with monocytosis, early features of t-MN. The development of anemia was significantly accelerated by treatment of mice with the alkylating agent, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), regardless of the levels of expression of Egr1 and Tp53. Transplantation of either wild type; Egr1(+/-); Tp53(+/-); Apc(del/+); or Egr1(+/-), Apc(del/+) bone marrow cells into lethally irradiated Apc(del/+) recipients resulted in rapid development of anemia that was further accelerated by administration of ENU to recipients, demonstrating that the Apc(del/+)-induced anemia was cell extrinsic and potentiated by ENU mutagenesis. These data emphasize the synergistic role of cell intrinsic and cell extrinsic (microenvironment) factors in the pathogenesis of t-MN, and raise awareness of the deleterious effects of cytotoxic therapy on the stromal microenvironment.

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