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Bioresour Technol. 2014 Jan;151:278-83. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.10.085. Epub 2013 Nov 6.

Biofuel production by liquefaction of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) biomass.

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Department of Chemistry, Çukurova University, Arts and Sciences Faculty, Adana 01330, Turkey.


In this study, kenaf biomass, its dried hydrolysate residue (solid residue left after removing water from hydrolysate) and non-hydrolyzed kenaf residue (solid residue left after hydrolysis process) were liquefied at various temperatures. Hydrolysis of biomass was performed in subcritical water condition. The oil+gas yield of biomass materials increased as the temperature increased from 250 to 300°C. Increasing temperature to 350°C resulted in decreases in oil+gas contents for all biomass feeds studied. On the other hand, preasphaltene+asphaltene (PA+A) and char yields significantly decreased with increasing the process temperature. The use of carbon or activated carbon supported Ru catalyst in the process significantly decreased char and PA+A formations. Oils produced from liquefaction of kenaf, dried kenaf hydrolysate and non-hydrolyzed kenaf residue consist of fuel related components such as aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and benzene derivative compounds, indane and trans/cis-decalin.


Biofuel; Biomass; Catalyst; Kenaf; Liquefaction

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