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Eur Urol. 2014 Sep;66(3):584-92. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.10.029. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

Perioperative outcomes following surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava thrombus extending above the hepatic veins: a contemporary multicenter experience.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA. Electronic address: abel@urology.wisc.edu.
2
Department of Urology, Mayo Medical School and Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
3
Department of Urology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
4
Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
5
Department of Urology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus above the hepatic veins is technically complex and associated with an increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. However, minimal data exist that describe contemporary perioperative outcomes at major referral centers or the prognostic factors associated with poor outcomes.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the preoperative predictors of major complications and 90-d mortality after surgery in RCC patients who have IVC thrombus above the hepatic veins.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

We reviewed medical records of all RCC patients who had IVC tumor thrombus above hepatic veins and had had surgery between January 2000 and December 2012 at the Mayo Clinic, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and the University of Wisconsin Hospital.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENT AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:

Major complications recorded were defined as ≥ 3A according to the Clavien-Dindo system within 90 d of surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate associations of preoperative variables with risk of major complications or 90-d mortality.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:

A total of 162 patients were identified for study (level 3, 4 in 69, 93 patients, respectively, according to the Neves classification). Cardiopulmonary bypass was used in 60 of 162 patients (37.5%), and 40 patients (24.7%) had preoperative angioembolization. Major complications were reported in 55 patients (34.0%), with the most common being respiratory, cardiac, and hematologic issues. After multivariate analysis, preoperative systemic symptoms and level 4 thrombus were independently associated with increased risk of major complications. Mortality was reported in 17 patients (10.5%) within 90 d after surgery. After multivariate analysis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) and low serum albumin were preoperative factors independently associated with increased risk of 90-d mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

Contemporary perioperative mortality and major complication rates for RCC patients who have upper-level thrombus are 10% and 34%, respectively. Patients who have ECOG PS >1 or low serum albumin have increased risk for perioperative mortality.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiopulmonary bypass; Kidney cancer; Outcomes; Renal cell carcinoma; Thrombus

PMID:
24262104
DOI:
10.1016/j.eururo.2013.10.029
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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