Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Exp Allergy. 2013 Dec;43(12):1395-405. doi: 10.1111/cea.12173.

Perinatal risk factors for wheezing phenotypes in the first 8 years of life.

Author information

Department of Pediatrics/Respiratory Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center - Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.



A novel data-driven approach was used to identify wheezing phenotypes in pre-schoolchildren aged 0-8 years, in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort. Five phenotypes were identified: never/infrequent wheeze, transient early wheeze, intermediate onset wheeze, persistent wheeze and late onset wheeze. It is unknown which perinatal risk factors drive development of these phenotypes.


The objective of the study was to assess associations of perinatal factors with wheezing phenotypes and to identify possible targets for prevention.


In the PIAMA study (n = 3963), perinatal factors were collected at 3 months, and wheezing was assessed annually until the age of 8 years. Associations between perinatal risk factors and the five wheezing phenotypes were assessed using weighted multinomial logistic regression models. Odds ratios were adjusted for confounding variables and calculated with 'never/infrequent wheeze' as reference category.


Complete data were available for 2728 children. Risk factors for transient early wheeze (n = 455) were male gender, maternal and paternal allergy, low maternal age, high maternal body mass index, short pregnancy duration, smoking during pregnancy, presence of older siblings and day-care attendance. Risk factors for persistent wheeze (n = 83) were male gender, maternal and paternal allergy, and not receiving breastfeeding for at least 12 weeks. Intermediate onset wheeze (n = 98) was associated with a lower birth weight and late onset wheeze (n = 45) with maternal allergy.


We identified different risk factors for specific childhood wheezing phenotypes. Some of these are modifiable, such as maternal age and body mass index, smoking, day-care attendance and breastfeeding, and may be important targets for prevention programmes.


childhood asthma; latent class analysis; prevention; risk factors; wheezing phenotypes

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center