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Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14(6):547-55. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2013.860483. Epub 2013 Nov 22.

Effect of movement speed on trunk and hip exercise performance.

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a Sports Research Centre , Miguel Hernandez University of Elche , Alicante , Spain.


The influence of speed on trunk exercise technique is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of movement speed on the kinematics and kinetics of curl-up, sit-up and leg raising/lowering exercises. Seventeen healthy, recreationally trained individuals (13 females and 4 males) volunteered to participate in this study. Four different exercise cadences were analysed: 1 repetition/4 s, 1 repetition/2 s, 1 repetition/1.5 s and 1 repetition/1 s. The exercises were executed on a force plate and recorded by three cameras to conduct a 3D photogrammetric analysis. The cephalo-caudal displacement of the centre of pressure and range of motion (ROM) of six joints describing the trunk and hip movements were measured. As sit-up and curl-up speed increased, hip and knee ROM increased. Dorsal-lumbar and upper trunk ROM increased with speed in the curl-up. Faster cadence in the sit-up exercise had minimal effect on trunk ROM: only the upper trunk ROM decreased significantly. In the leg raising/lowering exercise there was a decrease in the pelvic tilt and hip ROM, and increased knee flexion ROM. During higher speed exercises, participants modified their technique to maintain the cadence. Thus, professionals would do well to monitor and control participants' technique during high-speed exercises to maintain performance specificity. Results also suggest division of speed into two cadence categories, to be used as a reference for prescribing exercise speed based on preferred outcome goals.


3D analysis; Biomechanics; core training; kinetics

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