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PLoS One. 2013 Nov 18;8(11):e79478. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079478. eCollection 2013.

Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3 pathway downstream of BCR/ABL, Jak2-V617F, or FLT3-ITD downregulates DNA damage-induced Chk1 activation as well as G2/M arrest and prominently enhances induction of apoptosis.

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1
Department of Hematology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

Constitutively-activated tyrosine kinase mutants, such as BCR/ABL, FLT3-ITD, and Jak2-V617F, play important roles in pathogenesis of hematopoietic malignancies and in acquisition of therapy resistance. We previously found that hematopoietic cytokines enhance activation of the checkpoint kinase Chk1 in DNA-damaged hematopoietic cells by inactivating GSK3 through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to inhibit apoptosis. Here we examine the possibility that the kinase mutants may also protect DNA-damaged cells by enhancing Chk1 activation. In cells expressing BCR/ABL, FLT3-ITD, or Jak2-V617F, etoposide induced a sustained activation of Chk1, thus leading to the G2/M arrest of cells. Inhibition of these kinases by their inhibitors, imatinib, sorafenib, or JakI-1, significantly abbreviated Chk1 activation, and drastically enhanced apoptosis induced by etoposide. The PI3K inhibitor GD-0941 or the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 showed similar effects with imatinib on etoposide-treated BCR/ABL-expressing cells, including those expressing the imatinib-resistant T315I mutant, while expression of the constitutively activated Akt1-myr mutant conferred resistance to the combined treatment of etoposide and imatinib. GSK3 inhibitors, including LiCl and SB216763, restored the sustained Chk1 activation and mitigated apoptosis in cells treated with etoposide and the inhibitors for aberrant kinases, PI3K, or Akt. These observations raise a possilibity that the aberrant kinases BCR/ABL, FLT3-ITD, and Jak2-V617F may prevent apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics, at least partly through enhancement of the Chk1-mediated G2/M checkpoint activation, by inactivating GSK3 through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These results shed light on the molecular mechanisms for chemoresistance of hematological malignancies and provide a rationale for the combined treatment with chemotherapy and the tyrosine kinase or PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors against these diseases.

PMID:
24260231
PMCID:
PMC3832535
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0079478
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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