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J Nutr. 2014 Jan;144(1):98-105. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.185165. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Dietary supplementation with white button mushrooms augments the protective immune response to Salmonella vaccine in mice.

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Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, and.


We previously showed that dietary white button mushrooms (WBMs) enhanced natural killer cell activity and that in vitro WBM supplementation promotes maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs). The current study investigated whether WBM consumption would enhance pathogen-specific immune response using a Salmonella vaccination and infection animal model. C57BL/6 mice were fed diets containing 0%, 2%, or 5% WBM for 4 wk before oral vaccination with live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL1479. Four weeks after immunization, mice were orally infected with virulent Salmonella typhimurium SL1344. Immunization increased animal survival and, among immunized mice, the 2% WBM group had a higher survival rate than the other groups. Next, we fed mice 2% WBMs to determine the immunological mechanism underlying the WBM-potentiated protective effect. We found that WBM supplementation increased Salmonella-specific blood immunoglobulin (Ig) G and fecal IgA concentrations. WBM-fed mice also had a higher IgG2a and unchanged IgG1 production, leading to an elevated IgG2a:IgG1 ratio and indicating an enhanced T helper 1 response. Consistent with these results, WBM-fed mice had higher interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-17A production and unchanged IL-4 production in their splenocytes after polyclonal (anti-CD3/CD28) or antigen-specific stimulation. Furthermore, WBM-fed mice had more DCs in the spleen, and these DCs expressed higher levels of activation markers CD40 and major histocompatibility complex-II. These mice also produced more IL-12 and TNF-α postimmunization. Together, these results suggest that WBMs may improve Salmonella vaccine efficacy through an enhanced adaptive immune response.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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