Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013 Oct;23(8):1438-45. doi: 10.1097/IGC.0b013e3182a16c93.

Lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) is an isolated poor prognostic factor for recurrence and survival among women with intermediate- to high-risk early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer.

Author information

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH.



Whereas previous studies have shown that lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) is associated with an increased risk for recurrent endometrioid endometrial cancer and worse survival, the magnitude of this risk in relationship to the other high-risk features is poorly understood. Our aim was to study the impact of LVSI in comparison with the other high-risk features in recurrence and survival.


Women with stage I or II endometrial cancer were included in this study if they had LVSI, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 2 or 3 histology, or outer-half myometrial invasion. We performed multivariate regression analyses to identify prognostic factors for recurrence. We performed Kaplan-Meier survival curve predictions of progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival; and Cox proportional hazard models to adjust for other variables.


Three hundred eighty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria; their median follow-up was 59 months. The rates of recurrence were the following: overall, 17%; pelvic, 11%; vaginal cuff, 8%, and distant, 11%. Twenty-six percent of the patients died during follow-up. After adjusting for age, body mass index, grade, depth of invasion, cervical invasion, lymphadenectomy, and adjuvant treatment(s), LVSI was the only significant independent risk factor for total (odds ratio, 2.6) and distant (odds ratio, 3.3) recurrences and was also a risk factor for local and vaginal recurrences. Lymphovascular space invasion was also a significant poor prognostic factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.8), OS (HR, 2.8), and disease-specific survival (HR, 7.0). Among the other risk factors, age was significantly associated with worse PFS and OS, whereas grade 3 histology was significantly associated with worse OS.


In our study, LVSI is the only significant and consistent poor prognostic factor for all the outcomes studied: recurrences and survival. Lymphovascular space invasion seems to be a better predictor than the other risk factors. This suggests a potential role for adjuvant systemic therapies in patients with LVSI, even in the absence of other high-risk features.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wolters Kluwer
    Loading ...
    Support Center