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J Hum Hypertens. 2014 Jun;28(6):353-9. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2013.115. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

Relation of raw and cooked vegetable consumption to blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study.

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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.
Department of Epidemiology, Fu Wai Hospital and Cardiovascular Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
Section of Computational and Systems Medicine, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.


Inverse associations have been reported of overall vegetable intake to blood pressure (BP); whether such relations prevail for both raw and cooked vegetables has not been examined. Here we report cross-sectional associations of vegetable intakes with BP for 2195 Americans ages 40-59 in the International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) using four standardized multi-pass 24-h dietary recalls and eight BP measurements. Relations to BP of raw and cooked vegetables consumption, and main individual constituents were assessed by multiple linear regression. Intakes of both total raw and total cooked vegetables considered separately were inversely related to BP in multivariate-adjusted models. Estimated average systolic BP differences associated with two s.d. differences in raw vegetable intake (68 g per 1000 kcal) and cooked vegetable intake (92 g per 1000 kcal) were -1.9 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.1, -0.8; P=0.001) and -1.3 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.5, -0.2; P=0.03) without body mass index (BMI) in the full model; -1.3 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.4, -0.2; P=0.02) and -0.9 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.0, 0.2; P=0.1) with additional adjustment for BMI. Among commonly consumed individual raw vegetables, tomatoes, carrots, and scallions related significantly inversely to BP. Among commonly eaten cooked vegetables, tomatoes, peas, celery, and scallions related significantly inversely to BP.


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