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World J Virol. 2013 Aug 12;2(3):110-22. doi: 10.5501/wjv.v2.i3.110.

Nuclear domain 10 of the viral aspect.

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Yisel A Rivera-Molina, Francisco Puerta Martínez, Qiyi Tang, Department of Microbiology/RCMI Program, Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ponce, PR 00732-7004, United States.


Nuclear domain 10 (ND10) are spherical bodies distributed throughout the nucleoplasm and measuring around 0.2-1.0 μm. First observed under an electron microscope, they were originally described as dense bodies found in the nucleus. They are known by a number of other names, including Promyelocytic Leukemia bodies (PML bodies), Kremer bodies, and PML oncogenic domains. ND10 are frequently associated with Cajal bodies and cleavage bodies. It has been suggested that they play a role in regulating gene transcription. ND10 were originally characterized using human autoantisera, which recognizes Speckled Protein of 100 kDa, from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. At the immunohistochemical level, ND10 appear as nuclear punctate structures, with 10 indicating the approximate number of dots per nucleus observed. ND10 do not colocalize with kinetochores, centromeres, sites of mRNA processing, or chromosomes. Resistance of ND10 antigens to nuclease digestion and salt extraction suggest that ND10 are associated with the nuclear matrix. They are often identified by immunofluorescent assay using specific antibodies against PML, Death domain-associated protein, nuclear dot protein (NDP55), and so on. The role of ND10 has long been the subject of investigation, with the specific connection of ND10 and viral infection having been a particular focus for almost 20 years. This review summarizes the relationship of ND10 and viral infection. Some future study directions are also discussed.


Death domain-associated protein; Nuclear domain 10; Promyelocytic Leukemia; Speckled protein of 100 kDa; Viral replication; Virus

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