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Contin Chang. 2012 Dec;27(3). doi: 10.1017/S0268416012000240.

Estimates of Missing Women in Twentieth Century China.

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Institute for Population and Development Studies, School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, 710049, China.


The phenomenon of "missing women" has existed throughout the twentieth century in China. Using data from five censuses, with appropriate adjustments, we estimate the numbers and percentage of missing women from the period 1900-2000. The analysis is broken down into historically important periods, and the consequences of missing women, particularly that of China's "bare branches" are explored. Implications for Chinese society are then discussed.


China; bare branches; excess female mortality; missing women; sex ratio at birth

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