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Contemp Clin Trials. 2014 Jan;37(1):19-32. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2013.11.006. Epub 2013 Nov 16.

The resist diabetes trial: Rationale, design, and methods of a hybrid efficacy/effectiveness intervention trial for resistance training maintenance to improve glucose homeostasis in older prediabetic adults.

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Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States. Electronic address:
Department of Psychology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States.
Department of Human Development, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States.
Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States.


Advancing age is associated with reduced levels of physical activity, increased body weight and fat, decreased lean body mass, and a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Resistance training (RT) increases muscle strength and lean body mass, and reduces risk of T2D among older adults. The Resist Diabetes trial will determine if a social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention improves RT maintenance in older, prediabetic adults, using a hybrid efficacy/effectiveness approach. Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m(2)) adults aged 50-69 (N = 170) with prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk) initiation phase and were then randomly assigned (N = 159; 94% retention) to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. The SCT intervention consisted of faded contacts compared to standard care. Participants continue RT at an approved, self-selected community facility during maintenance. A subsequent 6-month period involves no contact for both conditions. Assessments occur at baseline and months 3 (post-initiation), 9 (post-intervention), and 15 (six months after no contact). Primary outcomes are prediabetes indices (i.e., impaired fasting and 2-hour glucose concentration) and strength. Secondary measures include insulin sensitivity, beta-cell responsiveness, and disposition index (oral glucose and C-peptide minimal model); adherence; body composition; and SCT measures. Resist Diabetes is the first trial to examine the effectiveness of a high fidelity SCT-based intervention for maintaining RT in older adults with prediabetes to improve glucose homeostasis. Successful application of SCT constructs for RT maintenance may support translation of our RT program for diabetes prevention into community settings.


Body composition; Diabetes; Disease risk reduction; Glucose metabolism; Self-regulation; Strength

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