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J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Oct;29(4):543-6. doi: 10.4103/0970-9185.119142.

Case series: Dexmedetomidine and ketamine for anesthesia in patients with uncorrected congenital cyanotic heart disease presenting for non-cardiac surgery.

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Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India.


The number of patients with uncorrected congenital cyanotic heart disease is less but at times some may present for non-cardiac surgery with a high anesthetic risk. Some of these may even be adults with compromised cardiopulmonary physiology posing greater challenges to the anesthesiologist. The authors have used a combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine for anesthesia for non cardiac surgery in five patients with cyanotic heart disease and right to left shunt (3-Eisenmenger's syndrome, 2-Tetralogy of Fallot). The sympathoinhibitory effects of dexmedetomidine were balanced with the cardiostimulatory effects of ketamine, thereby maintaining good cardiovascular stability. The analgesia was good and there was no postoperative agitation. This drug combination was effective and safe for patients with cyanotic heart disease for non cardiac surgeries.


Congenital cyanotic heart disease; Eisenmenger's syndrome; dexmedetomidine; ketamine

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