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J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Dec 18;105(24):1871-80. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djt309. Epub 2013 Nov 18.

Circulating inflammation markers and prospective risk for lung cancer.

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  • 1Affiliations of authors: Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch (MSS, AH, EAE, JK, AKC), Biostatistics Branch (RMP, HAK), and Genetic Epidemiology Branch (NEC), Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD; HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick Inc., Frederick, MD (TJK, GS, LAP); Department of Statistics, Dongguk University, Seoul, Korea (J-HP).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite growing recognition of an etiologic role for inflammation in lung carcinogenesis, few prospective epidemiologic studies have comprehensively investigated the association of circulating inflammation markers with lung cancer.

METHODS:

We conducted a nested case-control study (n = 526 lung cancer patients and n = 592 control subjects) within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Control subjects were matched to lung cancer case patients on age, sex, follow-up time (median = 2.9 years), randomization year, and smoking (pack-years and time since quitting). Serum levels of 77 inflammation markers were measured using a Luminex bead-based assay. Conditional logistic regression and weighted Cox models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and cumulative risks, respectively.

RESULTS:

Of 68 evaluable markers, 11 were statistically significantly associated with lung cancer risk (P trend across marker categories < .05), including acute-phase proteins (C-reactive protein [CRP], serum amyloid A [SAA]), proinflammatory cytokines (soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 [sTNFRII]), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1 receptor antagonist [IL-1RA]), lymphoid differentiation cytokines (interleukin 7 [IL-7]), growth factors (transforming growth factor alpha [TGF-A]), and chemokines (epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78 [ENA 78/CXCL5], monokine induced by gamma interferon [MIG/CXCL9], B cell-attracting chemokine 1 [BCA-1/CXCL13], thymus activation regulated chemokine [TARC/CCL17], macrophage-derived chemokine [MDC/CCL22]). Elevated marker levels were associated with increased lung cancer risk, with odds ratios comparing the highest vs the lowest group ranging from 1.47 (IL-7) to 2.27 (CRP). For IL-1RA, elevated levels were associated with decreased lung cancer risk (OR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval = 0.51 to 1.00). Associations did not differ by smoking, lung cancer histology, or latency. A cross-validated inflammation score using four independent markers (CRP, BCA-1/CXCL13, MDC/CCL22, and IL-1RA) provided good separation in 10-year lung cancer cumulative risks among former smokers (quartile [Q] 1 = 1.1% vs Q4 = 3.1%) and current smokers (Q1 = 2.3% vs Q4 = 7.9%) even after adjustment for smoking.

CONCLUSIONS:

Some circulating inflammation marker levels are associated with prospective lung cancer risk.

PMID:
24249745
PMCID:
PMC3888091
DOI:
10.1093/jnci/djt309
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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