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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(2):833-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01896-13. Epub 2013 Nov 18.

Contemporary diversity of β-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae in the nine U.S. census regions and ceftazidime-avibactam activity tested against isolates producing the most prevalent β-lactamase groups.

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JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA.


Escherichia coli (328 isolates), Klebsiella pneumoniae (296), Klebsiella oxytoca (44), and Proteus mirabilis (33) isolates collected during 2012 from the nine U.S. census regions and displaying extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes were evaluated for the presence of β-lactamase genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were analyzed. The highest ESBL rates were noted for K. pneumoniae (16.0%, versus 4.8 to 11.9% for the other species) and in the Mid-Atlantic and West South Central census regions. CTX-M group 1 (including CTX-M-15) was detected in 303 strains and was widespread throughout the United States but was more prevalent in the West South Central, Mid-Atlantic, and East North Central regions. KPC producers (118 strains [112 K. pneumoniae strains]) were detected in all regions and were most frequent in the Mid-Atlantic region (58 strains). Thirteen KPC producers also carried blaCTX-M. SHV genes encoding ESBL activity were detected among 176 isolates. Other β-lactamase genes observed were CTX-M group 9 (72 isolates), FOX (10), TEM ESBL (9), DHA (7), CTX-M group 2 (3), NDM-1 (2 [Colorado]), and CTX-M groups 8 and 25 (1). Additionally, 62.9% of isolates carried ≥2 β-lactamase genes. KPC producers were highly resistant to multiple agents, but ceftazidime-avibactam (MIC50/90, 0.5/2 μg/ml) and tigecycline (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 μg/ml) were the most active agents tested. Overall, meropenem (MIC50, ≤0.06 μg/ml), ceftazidime-avibactam (MIC50, 0.12 to 0.5 μg/ml), and tigecycline (MIC50, 0.12 to 2 μg/ml) were the most active antimicrobials when tested against this collection. NDM-1 producers were resistant to all β-lactams tested. The diversity and increasing prevalence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been documented, and ceftazidime-avibactam was very active against the vast majority of β-lactamase-producing strains isolated from U.S. hospitals.

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