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Psychol Rep. 2013 Jun;112(3):716-26.

Translation and initial validation of the Japanese version of the Ruminative Responses Scale.

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  • 1Faculty of Human Relations, Tokai Gakuin University, Kakamigahara City, Gifu, Japan.


The Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS) is a measure of depressive rumination and, although several versions have been developed, the version by Treynor and colleagues has been used most frequently in research. This version contains two subscales: Brooding and Reflection. In the present study, the 22-item RRS was translated into Japanese and psychometric properties of the measure were examined in two samples of Japanese undergraduate students (ns = 299 and 56). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor model of the RRS showed a moderate to good fit to the data. The total and subscale scores indicated adequate reliability and construct validity. Consistent with previous studies, correlational analyses indicated that Brooding, rather than Reflection, assessed maladaptive aspects of rumination. The Japanese RRS was shown to be a reliable and valid measure that has the potential to contribute to future depression research and clinical practice.

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