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Surg Neurol Int. 2013 Jun 13;4(Suppl 1):S335-42. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.113444. eCollection 2013.

HEAVEN: The head anastomosis venture Project outline for the first human head transplantation with spinal linkage (GEMINI).

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Turin Advanced Neuromodulation Group, Turin, Italy.


In 1970, the first cephalosomatic linkage was achieved in the monkey. However, the technology did not exist for reconnecting the spinal cord, and this line of research was no longer pursued. In this paper, an outline for the first total cephalic exchange in man is provided and spinal reconnection is described. The use of fusogens, special membrane-fusion substances, is discussed in view of the first human cord linkage. Several human diseases without cure might benefit from the procedure.


Fusogens; head transplantation; spinal cord reconstruction

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