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J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2013 Jun 1;35(2). doi: 10.1007/s10862-012-9326-1.

Validation of the Social Exercise and Anxiety Measure (SEAM): Assessing fears, avoidance, and importance of social exercise.

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Washington University in St. Louis.


In two studies (N = 416; N = 118) examining responses from undergraduates, we developed the Social Exercise and Anxiety Measure (SEAM) and tested its factorial, convergent, and divergent validity. Our results demonstrate that the SEAM exhibits an excellent three factor structure consisting of the following subscales: Social Exercise Self-efficacy, Gym Avoidance, and Exercise Importance. In both studies, Social Exercise Self-efficacy correlated negatively and Gym Avoidance correlated positively with social interaction anxiety, fear of scrutiny, and fear of negative evaluation. Exercise Importance correlated positively with frequency of exercise and frequency of public exercise. Implications for the mental and physical health of individuals with high levels of social anxiety are discussed.


anxiety; assessment; exercise; self-efficacy; social anxiety

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