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J Gen Virol. 2014 Feb;95(Pt 2):278-91. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.059634-0. Epub 2013 Nov 16.

Norovirus gene expression and replication.

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Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK.


Noroviruses are small, positive-sense RNA viruses within the family Caliciviridae, and are now accepted widely as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries. Despite their impact, our understanding of the life cycle of noroviruses has lagged behind that of other RNA viruses due to the inability to culture human noroviruses (HuNVs). Our knowledge of norovirus biology has improved significantly over the past decade as a result of numerous technological advances. The use of a HuNV replicon, improved biochemical and cell-based assays, combined with the discovery of a murine norovirus capable of replication in cell culture, has improved greatly our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of norovirus genome translation and replication, as well as the interaction with host cell processes. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the intracellular life of noroviruses is discussed with particular emphasis on the mechanisms of viral gene expression and viral genome replication.

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