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Planta. 1985 Jul;165(1):43-50. doi: 10.1007/BF00392210.

Blue- and red-light action in photoorientation of chloroplasts in Adiantum protonemata.

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Department of Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Fukazawa, 158, Setagayaku, Tokyo, Japan.


An action spectrum for the low-fluencerate response of chloroplast movement in protonemata of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris L. was determined using polarized light vibrating perpendicularly to the protonema axis. The spectrum had several peaks in the blue region around 450 nm and one in the red region at 680 nm, the blue peaks being higher than the red one. The red-light action was suppressed by nonpolarized far-red light given simultaneously or alternately, whereas the bluelight action was not. Chloroplast movement was also induced by a local irradiation with a narrow beam of monochromatic light. A beam of blue light at low energy fluence rates (7.3ยท10(-3)-1.0 W m(-2)) caused movement of the chloroplasts to the beam area (positive response), while one at high fluence rates (10 W m(-2) and higher) caused movement to outside of the beam area (negative response). A red beam caused a positive response at fluence rates up to 100 W m(-2), but a negative response at very high fluence rates (230 and 470 W m(-2)). When a far-red beam was combined with total background irradiation with red light at fluence rates causing a low-fluence-rate response in whole cells, chloroplasts moved out of the beam area. When blue light was used as background irradiation, however, a narrow far-red beam had no effect on chloroplast distribution. These results indicate that the light-oriented movement of Adiantum chloroplasts is caused by red and blue light, mediated by phytochrome and another, unidentified photoreceptor(s), respectively. This movement depends on a local gradient of the far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome or of a photoexcited blue-light photoreceptor, and it includes positive and negative responses for both red and blue light.


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